European Business Schools Librarian's Group

Working Papers,
Copenhagen Business School, Department of International Economics and Management

No 13-2001: Multinational Enterprises from Small Economies: The Internationalization Pattern of Large Companies from Denmark, Finland and Norway

Gabriel R.G. Benito, Jorma Larimo, Rajneesh Narula and Torben Pedersen
Additional contact information
Gabriel R.G. Benito: Norwegian School of Management BI, Postal: Department of Strategy, Norwegian School of Management BI, Elias Smiths Vei 15, N-1302 Sandvika, Norway
Jorma Larimo: University of Vaasa, Postal: Department of Marketing, University of Vaasa, P.O. Box 700, FIN-65101 Vaasa, Finland
Rajneesh Narula: University of Oslo, Postal: Center for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo, Forskningsparken, Gaustadalleen 21, N-0317 Oslo, Norway
Torben Pedersen: Department of International Economics and Management, Copenhagen Business School, Postal: Department of International Economics and Management, Copenhagen Business School, Howitzvej 60, 2nd floor , DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark

Abstract: Analyzing the internationalization of large companies from small countries requires understanding the process of internationalization by examining push-pull forces associated with the interface between micro and macro level factors. We examine the growth and international expansion of the ten largest companies in Denmark, Finland, and Norway over the period 1990 to 1999. Most companies in the sample became more international during the last decade across basically all the investigated dimensions of internationalization. This was particularly accentuated in the case of Norwegian firms, possibly due to their lower degree of internationalization at the beginning of the period. The study also shows that companies increasingly internationalized even such strategic activities as research and development activities, and headquarters functions.

Keywords: Internationalization; Scandinavia; Multinational corporations; Small open economies

36 pages, June 11, 2001

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